I’m not sure exactly what year Paul Bley agreed to sit with me for the DownBeat Blindfold Test, but given the track datings, it was probably 2002. He was playing the Blue Note, staying in an apartment on W. 9th Street with a questionable sound system. We’d become acquainted not long before, when he and Gary Peacock joined me together for a few hours on WKCR, which is a show I have retrieve and transcribe some day. Anyway, it was fun to do, and hopefully the transcript will be both entertaining and illuminating.
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I have something to say as a little preamble. Mike Zwerin, a number of years ago, invited me to review records, thinking since I was so poor at the time that I might be able to make a little pocket money. He was living in New York in New York at the time, so you know how long ago that was. He handed me a giant stack of LPs, maybe 20 LPs, and I said, “Wow, this is going to be fun; I’m looking forward to it.” So I got home, put on LP-1, listened to it, and by about 10 LPs… He was sitting with me actually. I had nothing to say. He said, “You’ve heard all these LPs and you haven’t said anything.” I said, “there was nothing worth talking about.” That was the end of my disk jockey career. I think I gave him one paragraph. By that time he was playing the organ trios, the Prestiges… [LAUGHS] How am I going to talk if you bring records that don’t require any talk? So I hope this is not going to be the same situation.
1. Ornette Coleman “Mob Job” (from SOUND MUSEUM: HIDDEN MAN, Verve/Harmolodic, 1996) (Coleman, as; Geri Allen, p; Charnett Moffett, b; Denardo Coleman, d) – (5 stars)
Well, I’m not a fan of tempo medleys. It started at one tempo and proceeded to another. There was no reason not to have the written material be in the same tempo as the track was going to be in. [ALTO SAX ENTERS] Definitely Ornette Coleman, of course. Well, it’s a waste of time with the pianist. There’s a good reason he doesn’t use piano. See, the horn player can make the transitions to wherever he wants to go at any time, but the piano player actually has to change their mindset to get rid of the key center. [Any idea who the pianist might have been?] I don’t care. [Did you think the pianist worked as successfully as possible under the circumstances?] I’m not really concerned about the pianist. [How many stars?] Stars! [LAUGHS] Anything with Coleman deserves 6 stars. [When do you think it was from?] It sounded like a home recording.
That was fun! I had my own label. But I couldn’t afford myself.
2. Ahmad Jamal, “Aftermath” (from OLYMPIA 2000, Dreyfus, 2001) (Jamal, piano; James Cammack, b; Idris Muhammad, d) – (5 stars)
Wonderful trio, very exciting, they played really well together. My comments are not really about this trio. Let’s go all the way back to the beginning of what we’re talking about. Music is language. It’s conversation. If it’s language and conversation, it should not be repetitive..repetitive..repetitive..repetitive. You got it the first time I said that word. The next three times I said it was adding to a level of redundancy…redundancy… Now, we’re not talking about profundity. We’re talking about language, and aspiring to be ideas. Not profundity. We haven’t gotten anywhere near that. That’s not even on the table. So if it’s language, let’s remove all repetition, because it’s insulting to the listener…insulting to the listener. You get my drift? Anything you play twice is once too much. I loved it. I loved the drummer. I loved the bass player. I loved everything. It was on a very high level. 5 stars. Ahmad Jamal would be my guess. He’s come a long way. He’s a good friend, by the way, but I don’t really know his recent work. But we’re very close, because we have been in hotel rooms all night in Bologna, Italy, etcetera, etc.
I’ll tell you a funny story, which may or may not be included. It was 5 in the morning in a hotel in Bologna, and Ahmad had just got off the phone. I said, “Ahmad, you’ve been on the phone a very long time.” He said, “Yeah, I just blew the amount of money I earned tonight on the phone.” I said, “Well, Ahmad, doesn’t that indicate it might be time to go home to Chicago and do it in person instead of on the phone?”
3. Tommy Flanagan, “How Deep Is The Ocean” (from SEA CHANGES, Evidence, 1997) (Flanagan, p; Peter Washington, b; Lewis Nash, d) (no rating)
May I have this dance? The last time I asked somebody to dance was the opening night of Ornette at the Five Spot, playing opposite Benny Golson and Art Farmer. They sounded really good, and they played the first set, and it’s a wonderful band and way out there. And then Ornette went in and did his first New York set ever. And I thought, “Wow, everybody’s completely blown away.” But then Art Farmer and Benny Golson went back on the stage and did the second set, and I asked the bartender to dance. Today is the second time I’ve ever asked anyone to dance. Ornette had turned Benny Golson into the orchestra at the roof of the Taft Hotel on 7th Avenue and 51st Street overnight. A single set. [Unlike most of the people in the room, you knew what you were in for.]
4. Keith Jarrett, “Prelude To A Kiss” (from WHISPER NOT, ECM, 2000) (Jarrett, p; Gary Peacock, b; Jack DeJohnette, d) (5 stars)
What is the real meaning of the initials NEC? I’ve had a lot of fun with that at the school. Oh, what’s the real meaning of ECM? Do you know that? Easily Castrated Musicians. We can do this all day, Ted. [You're good at it.] Thank you. I collect them. Poor Duke. [You're tough. Unlike most musicians, you are not imprisoned by tact.] Poor Duke. [LAUGHS] [Do you play Ellington's tunes?] I know all of Ellington’s tunes. I knew them all when I was in short pants. But when a musician dies, it’s time to give other guys a chance. [But you still play older things from the songbook.] Oh, if you pay me, I will play… [So if I paid you whatever your fee was, you would do an Ellington...] Absolutely. Of course. We aim to please, as they say in the bathroom urinals.
The problem with the recording of bass is it’s the least accessible instrument to listen to. God forbid somebody in the audience coughs, or there goes the solo. You ask yourself why is the bass so possible in that standard format, that trio format. The trio format is flawed. If you’re going to put three musicians, it should be because they’re three musicians, and the fact that one plays the trombone and the other plays whatever is not the point. You’re hiring individuals. Any format is already dead. Big band, string quartet, piano trio. The fact that it already preexists the occasion means that everything is uphill. Because it’s not an original format. So you talk about lack of originality. [Doesn't the logic of that lead that you eventually run out of formats, and nothing will be original?] There are no formats. There’s only great players. [It's only the individual.] A collection of great players. We’re in a new century now. It’s time to give all the old ideas a rest. They’re no longer valid just because the century changed. Your time is up. It’s expired.
You know, if a 7-year-old played only white notes, they could sound this good. It’s called modal. The Aeolian mode, in particular. Ah, a modulation. It’s very nice, and she will go to bed with you. Whoever you’re listening to this with. [Is it recent? Older? Older musician? Younger musician?] First of all, all eighth notes are not created equal. It’s a little too simplistic rhythmically. He’s doing a very good job. He’s a very fine pianist, and it’s a very nice track and so forth. But it’s not worth discussing. I’m looking to be offended. [It seems the things that offend you are things like this.] No-no, I mean offended in a good way. [LAUGHS] I think it was very well done. I’d give it 5 stars. For what was attempted, it was a big success. [No idea who it was?] No. It could have been anybody working on 8th Street. [It was Keith Jarrett.] Oh. Well, I’m sorry to hear that. [It's his post-illness record.] Well, he certainly has bounced back recently, kicking ass with the trio. Boy! He has my 1964 date, “Turning Point” on Improvising Artists, the one with Gary and Gilmore… He’s got that down pat with Gary! He took over that. That’s a big step for him. He went out of standards all the way to 1964. And who knows, we’re looking forward to 1974.
5. Kenny Barron, “Beneath It All” (from SWAMP SALLY, Verve, 1995) (Barron, p., keyboards; Minu Cinelu, percussion) – (5 stars)
I love this recording. This is the first new information you’ve brought me today. The town crier in the old days used to stand in the town square, and say, “Hear ye! Hear ye! I’ve come to inform you.” And if he had nothing to say or said something that the town already knew, they would get upset, because he summoned them into the town square and told them something they already knew. It’s wonderful! The piano player did not need the rest of the band. But they were great, the way they went into what I call a second CD’s worth of music. We’re really talking about two separate issues. The piano player did not need help. It engaged everybody in their curiosity minimally, and there was no way to predict where he was going to go. And the fact that we happen to have this wonderful band hit and do great things was just a wonderful plus. But I personally could have stood a lot… I could have heard a CD worth of the piano player, and I probably wouldn’t have interrupted it with this conversation. I loved it, and I loved the second part. It just goes to show that you’re going to have to go to a foreign country to get some fresh input in jazz. You need foreigners. You need people who speak a second language to be added to the stream of music. It’s such a wonderful situation now, where the world has sent everybody… Airline tickets are so cheap, that you can hire a band where every player comes from a different continent, a different city, and they can play together at the drop of a hat — and they all live in Brooklyn Heights. It’s just a wonderful situation! When anyone talks about jazz not in a great period, it’s just that they’re not widely enough informed. [So you thought that the piano player was not American?] Well, certainly the band didn’t play this good off of being a bebop band. So I assume that he comes from the same country as the rest of the players. So I cannot guess who this is. [Well, it was only two musicians.] Ah. [It was Kenny Barron and Mino Cinelu.] Wow! [And Kenny was playing piano and synth.] [LAUGHS] Wrong! Wrong like a mother! No wonder Kenny is as loved as he is. A monster! Kenny’s a monster! Six stars. [LAUGHS] Fuck you, Kenny Barron! I hate him. I’m going to tell him that next time I see him, too.
6. Hampton Hawes, “Soul Sign Eight” (from HAMPTON HAWES AT THE PIANO, Contemporary, 1976) (Hawes, p; Ray Brown, b; Shelley Manne, d) (5 stars)
There’s no need to go any more. It’s beautifully done, well-played, etcetera, etc., but it’s nothing that harmonically and rhythmically wasn’t done in the ’50s. If you’re going to redo something, redo a style where your triads are quite simple, you’re staying within a key, you’re not adding anything to the literature of the music… I mean, the purpose of making a record is not to redo your own stuff or somebody else’s stuff. The purpose of making a record is to add to the literature of the music, which means you’re bringing in some elements that are not widely available, and you’re indicating to other musicians that following along the suggestions that you’re making with this recording of yours might be of some interest and it might be of some utility to somebody who is playing. If the record is already in existence… My rule is that if it’s already for sale at Tower Records, buy it. Don’t make it up. [And you have no idea from the sound or the touch or the style who this might be.] First level players. It could be one of a number of people. And I was very happy for them. It’s nicely recorded. But, my first record on Wing Records in 1953, contained this information. I outgrew it, and I hope this pianist does the same. [AFTER] [One reason I played this is because it was a person who developed his own sound and was doing it in the '50s, and so the sound, therefore, from my impression, would be unto him.] For Hampton Hawes, it’s a big accomplishment. This is a big accomplishment. It’s the best Hampton Hawes I’ve ever heard — by far. Still containing no new information, but well-played. 5 stars. It a big accomplishment. I love Shelley Manne in rhythm sections. The rhythm section was nice, man. “Way Out West,” Shelley Manne? Wow. What an imaginative drummer. I worked with him. We played the Antibes Festival in France. But I’d rather let that track rest.
7. Gonzalo Rubalcaba, “Oren” (from SUPERNOVA, Blue Note, 2001) (Rubalcaba, piano, keyboards; Carlos Henriquez, b; Ignacio Berroa, d)
You know, it’s a similar situation here to when someone wants to tell you a joke. You start before they start the joke with an open mind and a positive frame of mind, willing to accept the premise of the story and looking for the punchline at the end, and so forth. But as the story keeps going on like the beginning, just continuously, time is the enemy of the joke. Because you’re waiting for the punchline. It’s called the suspension of disbelief. I’m sure you know the term in poetry. It was suspended. I enjoyed the high production values. The pianist had a very nice touch. The fact that it had only one chord in it was a little abrasive, and that that method was going to run out of time even faster than it would normally. Because one chord is one chord is one chord, etcetera. As the country-western musician said, “Three chords and the truth is the definition of country music.” I thought that was nicely coined. But this one only had one chord! And it wasn’t even Country-and-Western. I prefer to wait for the movie. [Any guesses?] I’ll have to see the film and be reinterviewed. It certainly wasn’t worth listening to without a film accompanying it. Well played. No disrespect to the musicians. And a pretty melody, by the way. An original melody. It’s like the organ trios. The only question is why. [Pleasing the people.] [LAUGHS] Oh, by the way, pleasing the people is the exact wrong premise for young musicians… [I've heard you say this.] Thank you. You know all my rants. [I think you have your contradictions. Would you care to bestow stars?] Stars. As I said, when I see the film and listen to this film score, I’ll be happy to rate it at that time. [Well, I need to play it a little more, because I can't print anything you've said if you won't give it stars.] [LAUGHS] You may not have brought enough records. If you had brought a real package of records, we could have done this and been out of here in 40 minutes. I could have said, “Forget it, keep it…” [Can't you just please me and give some stars here? You can even give it a pro forma five stars.] No-no, five I can’t give. You need a star system that says “I have nothing to say.” [Then you can say "for the way it was played, such-and-such stars."] But how about unrated? They do that in porn movies. Unrated it. [This isn't a porn movie.] Well, it gives you a license to make an escape without… [Not according to my editor.] Oh, he wants stars, huh? [He wants stars.] Have we run out of alternatives. Is that the problem? It’s not possible for me to deal with this level of… I’m very loathe to give somebody a very low rating. Which is why you need to be able to interviewee a pass.
8. Vijay Iyer, “Atlantean Tropes” (from PANOPTIC MODES, Red Giant, 2001) (Iyer, p; Stephan Crump, b; Derrek Phelps, d) – (5 stars)
I’ll give it 5 stars. The plusses far outweigh the minuses. The plusses are of no use to the musicians. When somebody comes up to you at the end of the set and says, “That was great,” there’s no new information. We know that was great. That’s why we played it. Let’s talk about the minuses. I always prefer to couch profundity in humor. Someone was interviewing Albert Einstein, and they were trying to impress Einstein with their insights. Einstein, who was a violinist, turned and said, “that’s very profound, but not very funny.” So you need to be more than profound.
Now, this is definitely one of the top things you played today, and there’s nothing I can say negative. I just have a small facetious aside to make. And I admonish musicians with these facetious asides. This one is: If you use up all your eighth notes in your youth, you won’t have any left to play in your old age. Doesn’t matter what the instrument. I’m not supposed to know what you’re doing. If I know what you do, I don’t like it. So you’re constantly supposed to elude me. It was incredibly well-composed, well-played, the horn player was great, there was unity through the whole track, exercise of the imagination, beautiful use of chords — the list goes on. It’s almost a masterpiece. I might say it was a masterpiece. Today it was definitely a masterpiece, based on what else I’ve heard! [LAUGHS] But remember, we’re in the post-Albert Ayler-Paul Motian-Sunny Murray period. You can’t get away with meter any more, certainly as an entry level artist and a new artist. You can’t get away with meter. I gave my metronome away when I was at Juilliard. I broke mine. They need to be smashed. Because breathing is not metronome. Breathing is circular. Up and down phrases, rushing through… [What about the heartbeat?] The heartbeat is also not metrical. It’s PAH-BOOM, PAH-BOOM. And you can’t measure it exactly right. If you’re walking around the room, it’s definitely not metrical. And remember, you’re in a new century. It’s such an exciting time. This is the perfect time to wipe the blackboard clean and start with a fresh page.
9. Brad Mehldau, “Quit” (from TRIO PROGRESSION, Warner Brothers, 2001) (Mehldau, p; Larry Grenadier, b; Jorge Rossy, d) – (5 stars)
Are you going to continue to play Keith Jarrett for me all day today? It’s no small accomplishment to play Keith Jarrett. The problem is, he was there first. It’s who you avoid that’s more important than who you support. It’s not hard to draw up a roadmap of who to avoid. Just check the “Downbeat” Readers’ Poll. If it’s already been recorded, it’s not a good idea to try to improve on it. It’s a magical track, by the way. These players are all great players, and a masterful track, and very worthwhile doing it — and if I owned the label, I would support the production. But I fear for the pianist. [Why do you fear for the pianist?] Because when you are born into a world of giants, you have to be an iconoclast. There’s no way to treat them on their own terms, because you lean to their sensibility. You’re at risk. So you can’t work through them. You have to destroy the icon. [So you're postulating the Oedipal theory of music history.] Well, I don’t know if I’d put it exactly in that slant. But what I’m saying is that it’s who you hate that’s more important than who you love. And if you hate somebody, then I won’t recognize who you hate. But if you love somebody, it’s going to defeat the whole purpose, see, because you always get hurt by the one you love. That’s a nice turn of phrase. [I've heard it.] Thank you. Unfortunately I’ve heard it before! [Was that an older or younger player?] It was a masterful player, whatever age. Way on top of it. Certainly I much prefer somebody who is that developed than somebody who had less to offer. There was certainly a lot to listen to.
You know, the trouble with being a bass player is that if the piano player can play faster than you, you should go home. Why would you want to play with somebody who can’t move through the music, move notes at least as fast as a pianist, which would be the reason to not ever play with a pianist. See, if I play with you, without any other value judgments, we want to be equals. We want to play equally. So the way the trio in this case solves that problem is either the other players play down, play less than they can, to be polite and accommodate the less facile musician. Just as at a dinner conversation, if you’re the young person at the table who can’t keep up with the conversation, it’s the responsibility of the other people to speak slower and leave a lot of silences, and invite the other person to air their side of the conversation. Playing in a trio, for the piano player to be running at the mouth and… If you have Gary Peacock on the bandstand, that’s not a problem. But if you’re going to play with a player who is really a time player, you have to really… The whole date would be about making this person equal to the other players. That’s the whole premise of the date. You can’t go past somebody. You have to take them with. The audience judges the band by its weakest player. Not by the accomplishment of the best player, but by the difficulties. [AFTER] It’s too late for him. If there was no Keith Jarrett, there would be room for a Brad Mehldau.
10. Sonny Clark, “Tadd’s Delight” (from SONNY CLARK TRIO, Blue Note, 1957/2001) (Clark, p; Paul Chambers, b; Philly Joe Jones. d) – (5 stars)
Hey, Tadd Dameron! Beautiful. A very nice sentimental tune, very well played, very enjoyable, well written. I did know the composer, I think — Tadd Dameron. It was perfect of its generation. It was beautifully played. The piano player sounded good. Somebody like Hank Jones would be perfect playing this material. I was amazed how good he sounded, Hank Jones, and this pianist equally well. So who is it? [Do you think it was of the time?] Oh, very much so. The way the recording sounded, too. Six stars. [AFTER] I don’t know his work. I know of him, of course. I was in California for two-plus years, and worked every night for two-plus years. We had one night off. So Sonny must have come by the Hillcrest Club and maybe said hello or something. But I was too busy to socialize.
11. Wayne Shorter, “Atlantis” (from FOOTPRINTS LIVE, Verve, 2002) (Shorter, ts; Danilo Perez, p; John Patitucci, b; Brian Blade, d) – (5 stars)
I love it. It’s really beautiful. But please, don’t bring a concert audience into my bedroom. The fact that the concert audience liked it was reason enough to discourage me. It’s not a commercial. So don’t tell me somebody else liked it. I’m the person who’s supposed to like it. By the same token, don’t grunt and groan on the bandstand. Let the audience do it. In a live performance they’re supposed to do the grunting and groaning as a result of your playing, and enjoying themselves. The problem is that when you write a tune, you’ve pretty much told the players that you’re going to be at this place on the map at this hour, playing this hour, playing this harmony, and then when the bars continue at this place in time you’re going to be at this place harmonically, and that’s called ornamentation. Ornamentation is not improvising. Ornamentation is a pre-set set of changes in which you play those changes as prescribed. Now, to try and create melodies with all this information that’s fixed and given is almost impossible.
So they did a beautiful job. But once again, I mention it’s 2002 now. It’s too late to tell the players what notes come where. It has some beautiful augmented harmonies in it. The joke about augmented is that the player had an diminished sensibility and an augmented ego. That’s the joke. You’re not supposed to tell me that it’s all augmented chords. I’m not supposed to guess that. You’re supposed to keep it from me. The same with electronic jazz. If I can tell what the setting is on a synth player, then I don’t like it. The idea is to design something that tricks me and fools me, and I have to go find the guy and say, “What was it? It’s wonderful!”
So it was very well played, and beautifully done, and for what it was, it was a great accomplishment. Now, once again, you may have brought the Latin world into it; it’s 5/4 and all that. I think there’s a Spanish name here with the piano player. I could say…not Rubalcaba… There’s two guys; they both work for my agent. It wasn’t the one who played simplistic track… Danilo Perez. Danilo is a good friend. [I know that a lot of the Spanish players have listened to you a lot.] Which is strange, because the album that I really wanted to make, the Spanish album that I wanted to make, having spent some time in Florida with some of my best friends in that part of the world, I have really only been able to suggest in my earlier playing the possibilities of what that leads to. [Any idea who the tenor player was?] No. But very nice use of space. Great use of space. Very sensitive. I’m impressed with your tracks. It’s been illuminating, the things you’ve played for me today. As a matter of fact, when you come up to me on a tour and you show me a really good photograph you’ve taken of the band, I take the photograph! I say, “You make yourself another copy. I’m taking this!” There’s definitely three keepers so far. You’re going to have a lot of trouble leaving the room with it under your arm. [AFTER] Wow. Amazingly sparse playing for Wayne. Wow. Wonderful. Very good. It really turned me on. Five stars.
12. Cecil Taylor, “Looking, Second Part” (from LOOKING (Berlin Version), THE FEEL TRIO, FMP, 1990) (Taylor, p.; William Parker, b; Tony Oxley, d) – (5 stars)
I can’t listen to any more of this, because it’s too influenced by Cecil. [But it is Cecil.] Of course. If you play trumpet and sound exactly like Louis Armstrong, you’d better be Louis Armstrong. But what more is there to say? It’s Louis Armstrong. Cecil is to be avoided like the plague if you’re a pianist. If you’re a drummer, it’s not a problem. [Why do you have to avoid him if you're a pianist?] Because he did it before you were out of knickers. [But not before you were out of knickers.] I’m very fond of Cecil, which is why I’m trying to protect him from his imitators. At one point, we thought that we’d do… We’ve played on the same bill, at the same festivals and all that, and at one point I thought that he would do the ballads and I would do the fast, frantic stuff. But then, brilliant as he is, he went on and did the ballads himself! Cecil is wonderful. He’s one of these wonderful, wonderful musicians who are much more than just musicians or instrumentalists. Their personalities color life itself. It’s been a blessing to be in his presence. End of story.
I remember in the ’50s he played with Steve Lacy. He was a wonderful combination with Steve, like hot knives with butter. A perfect antidote. That was one of the great combinations, like Roswell Rudd with John Tchicai. The Jazz Composers Guild had these wonderful ensembles that were perfectly framed, and Cecil, of course, belonged to that period. Whenever you’re in the presence of giants, be very… If you’re a professional musician who is responsible for the life of that instrument that you play, when you’re in the presence of giants… You would think that would be a good thing, like you paid a lot of money, great expectations — most probably you’re going to be even more than satisfied. So everything seems positive. But if you are a good musician, you have a lot of problems, unless it happens to be the Count Basie Orchestra with Joe Williams or something and it’s not about anything except having a good time… If you like it too much, you’re at risk.
It’s not a recent recording. It doesn’t sound like it was done in the last year or the year before. 1990? That’s old Cecil. Six stars.
13. Matthew Shipp, “Paradox X” (from NEW ORBIT, Thirsty Ear, 2001) (Shipp, prepared piano; Gerald Cleaver, d) – (5 stars)
With your permission, I’d just like to make a one-line joke. I wasn’t prepared to hear this. That’s the funniest thing I can come up with. 5 stars. I loved it. It’s very nice. It was a drummer’s tune. It was set up for the mallet player, who did a beautiful job. It’s amazing how it engaged you. I liked it. But I prefer my joke. [AFTER] I’ve met Matthew in airports.
14. Art Tatum, “Cherokee” (from THE COMPLETE ART TATUM SOLO MASTERPIECES, Pablo, 1954/1991) (Tatum, piano) – (5 stars)
Saved the best for last! [LAUGHS] Well, I think the interview is over. The art of playing piano. Wonderful! I’ve been having a problem with the tunes that are very popular — looping them. The very fact that the tunes are 32 bars, repeated over and over and over again, somehow that lingers beyond the performance, and I might be playing “Cherokee” for three days and nights. That’s a serious problem with looping. Because if you do anything twice, you may have set me in motion to an infinite repeat. [Are you saying that hearing something like that might trigger something in you...] No, it’s not a need. It might actually loop… The 32 bars may continue repeating even after the gig is over or the CD is off. The tune may go on ad infinitem for hours or even days. So I prefer to only listen to unfamiliar things that I can’t identify, which is good. It’s not possible to loop. I call it looping.
When Tatum died, the rest of the world said “thank goodness he’s gone!” You couldn’t be a pianist and be on the same planet with Tatum. And it’s amazing, because the content was almost nil. I mean, it’s how he played it. It’s the fact that he could play everything so well that was great. It wasn’t what he played. I mean, there are guitar players, like Tiny Bradshaw, who played an equivalent intellectually. But this is a perfect case of ornamentation to the Nth degree. Which means you can do a bad thing great… A bad thing done in a great way is better than a great thing done in a bad way! You can play with that sentence and look for meaning. But all the rules can be broken by somebody like Art Tatum. Because if you’re looking for linear creativity in terms of improvisation in this period, that’s a minor accomplishment compared to the fact that he can make that instrument sound like no one has ever played it before. When this guy was on the planet, he threatened every living pianist, Classical or Jazz. When you’ve got a giant roaming the planet, you know, with the trees rumbling and the dinosaurs hiding in the bushes and so forth, well, that’s a very bad time for an aspiring musician. You have to wait until this guy passes before there’s even room to THINK about what you want to do. Jazz history is full of giants on particular instruments that have… I mean, if you were an aspiring tenor saxophone player that didn’t wear a hat, Lester Young defeated your purpose. Each instrument has its nemesis. That’s the word I’m looking for, is “nemesis.” You’re supposed to be the first one to recognize that there is a nemesis, and it can affect you greatly and threaten your existence if not your livelihood. So it’s serious business, attempting to be the 11th person to play this instrument or the fortieth person to play this genre or the hundredth person, and so forth… A serious business. You can’t go in there without a thought in your head, looking for an “inspiration.” It’s not going to happen. Six stars.